eISSN: 2353-9461
ISSN: 0860-7796
BioTechnologia
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3/2021
vol. 102
 
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abstract:
REVIEW PAPER

Nanoantibodies: small molecules, big possibilities

Adriana Pedreáñez
1
,
Jesús Mosquera-Sulbarán
2
,
Nelson Muñóz
3
,
Diego Tene
4
,
Jorge Robalino
5

1.
Cátedra de Inmunología, Escuela de Bioanálisis, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela
2.
Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas “Dr. Américo Negrette”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela
3.
Universidad Nacional del Chimborazo, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Riobamba, Ecuador
4.
Laboratorio Clínico del Hospital General IESS, Riobamba, Ecuador
5.
Instituto INGINOST, Riobamba, Ecuador
BioTechnologia vol. 102 (3) C pp. 321–336 C 2021
Online publish date: 2021/09/30
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Camelids (camels, dromedaries, alpacas, llamas, and vicuñas) contain in their serum conventional heterodimeric antibodies as well as antibodies with no light chains (L) in their structure and composed of only heavy chains (H), called as HcAbs (heavy chain antibodies). Variable fragments derived from these antibodies, called as VHH or nanoantibodies (Nbs), have also been described. Since their discovery, Nbs have been widely used in the fields of research, diagnostics, and pharmacotherapy. Despite being approximately one-tenth the size of a conventional antibody, they retain similar specificity and affinity to conventional antibodies and are much easier to clone and manipulate. Their unique properties such as small size, high stability, strong antigen binding affinity, water solubility, and natural origin make them suitable for the development of biopharmaceuticals and nanoreagents. The present review aims to describe the main structural and biochemical characteristics of these antibodies and to provide an update on their applications in research, biotechnology, and medicine. For this purpose, an exhaustive search of the biomedical literature was performed in the following databases: Medline (PubMed), Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect. Meta-analyses, observational studies, review articles, and clinical guidelines were reviewed. Only original articles were considered to assess the quality of the evidence.
keywords:

camelids, nanoantibodies, nanotechnology, nanoreagents, SARS-CoV-2, therapy

 
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