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vol. 103

Neuroprotective effects of onion and garlic root extracts against Alzheimer’s disease in rats: antimicrobial, histopathological, and molecular studies

Eman M. Hegazy
Ayman Sabry
Wagdy K. B. Khalil

Food Toxicology and Contaminants Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
Department of Cell Biology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
BioTechnologia vol. 103(2) ∙ pp. 153–167 ∙ 2022
Online publish date: 2022/06/29
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a brain disorder and the main reason for dementia. In this regard, there is a need to understand the alterations that occur during aging to develop treatment strategies to mitigate or prevent neurodegenerative consequences. Onion and garlic root extracts contain natural polyphenols with high antioxidant capacity; therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of these extracts free from mycotoxin contamination on a rat model of AD. Antifungal and antibacterial assays were performed for onion and garlic extracts. Several groups of AD-induced rats were administered 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg onion or garlic extract through intragastric intubation for 30 days. After treatment, histopathological analysis, expression of apoptosis-related genes, and analyses of DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were conducted in the brain tissues. The results indicate that treatment of AD-induced rats with several doses of onion and garlic root extracts decreased histopathological lesions, the expression levels of apoptotic genes, and the rate of DNA damage and inhibited intracellular ROS generation in the brain tissues. The results suggest that the protective role of onion root extract could be attributed to its content of flavonoids and flavonoid compounds through the improvement of antioxidant capacity and regulation of gene expression patterns. The higher activity levels of free radical scavenging of azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and antioxidant ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) levels found in garlic root extract are most probably responsible for its protective effect against neurodegenerative damage.

onion, garlic, Alzheimer, mycotoxins, antimicrobial, histology, comet, gene expression

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